What are The Different Types of Blood Collection Tubes?

Vacuum blood collection tube has the characteristics of accurate blood collection volume, good safety performance, good separation effect of serum/plasma, convenient operation and use, and can take multiple blood samples with one needle, which is the best choice for clinical blood collection instead of disposable syringe. The vacuum blood collector is composed of vacuum blood vessel and blood needle. Vacuum blood collection is its main component, which is mainly used for blood collection and preservation. A certain amount of negative pressure is preset in the production process. When the blood collection needle punctures into the blood vessel, due to the negative pressure in the blood collection tube, the blood automatically flows into the blood collection tube. At the same time, a variety of additives are preset in the blood collection tube, which can fully meet the clinical multiple comprehensive blood testing, safe, closed, convenient transportation. Now, various blood collection vessels produced by the manufacturer are distinguished by different colors of the skull cap.

I. Vacuum vascular collection tube is generally divided into the following types:

1. Red-cap tube (dry vacuum tube without additives) : the inner wall of the collection vessel is evenly coated with anti-wall hanging agent (silicone oil). It makes use of the principle of blood natural coagulation to coagulate blood, such as serum natural precipitation, centrifugal use. Mainly used in serum biochemistry (liver function, kidney function, myocardial enzyme, amylase, etc.), electrolyte (serum potassium, sodium, chlorine, calcium, phosphorus, etc.), thyroid function, drug detection, AIDS detection, tumor markers, serum immunology.

2. Orange-cap tube (coagulant tube) : the inner wall of the collection vessel is evenly coated with silicon oil to prevent hanging, and coagulant is added at the same time. Coagulant can activate fibrinase, turn soluble fibrin into insoluble fibrin polymer, and then form stable fibrin clot. If you want to get results quickly, you can use coagulant tube, which can coagulate the blood collected in 5 minutes. It is generally used in emergency biochemistry.

3. Golden-cap tube (collection vessel containing inert separation glue and coagulant) : the tube wall is silicified and coated with coagulant to accelerate blood coagulation and shorten the test time. The separation glue is added in the tube. The separation glue has a good affinity and plays an isolation role. Generally, even in ordinary centrifuges, the separation glue can completely separate the liquid components (serum) and solid components (blood cells) in the blood and accumulate in the test tube to form a barrier. No oil droplets are produced in the serum after centrifugation, so it does not clog the machine. Mainly used for serum biochemistry (liver function, renal function, cardiac enzymes, amylase, etc.), electrolytes (serum potassium, sodium, chlorine, calcium, phosphorus, etc.), thyroid function, drug detection, AIDS detection, tumor markers, PCR, TORCH, serum immunology detection, etc.

4. Green-cap tube (heparin anticoagulation) containing heparin sodium heparin lithium mining or blood vessels, heparin is a kind of groups containing sulfate glycosaminoglycan, with a strong negative charge, has strengthened the role of antithrombin III inactivated serine protease, so as to prevent the formation of thrombin, anticoagulation and preventing platelet aggregation, etc. Heparin tubes are generally used for biochemical, TORCH, and hemorheological tests in emergency cases. Do not use heparin tubes when testing sodium ions in blood samples, in order to avoid affecting the test results. Nor can heparin be used to count and classify white blood cells because heparin can cause white blood cell aggregation.

5. Purple-cap tube (vein with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and its salt) : Ethylenediaminetetracarboxylic acid is an amino polycarboxylic acid that effectively binds calcium ions in blood. Calcium chelate will remove calcium from the reaction point and prevent and terminate the endogenous or exogenous coagulation process, thus preventing blood coagulation. Compared with other anticoagulants, it has less impact on the coagulation of blood cells and the morphology of blood cells. Therefore, EDTA salts (2K, 3K, 2Na) are usually used as anticoagulants. Used for general hematology (blood routine) examination and blood ammonia detection. Can not be used for blood coagulation, trace element examination.

6. Blue-cap tube (collection vessel containing sodium citrate anticoagulant) : Sodium citrate and calcium ions in the blood sample combine to play an anticoagulant effect, the ratio of anticoagulant to blood is 1:9, mainly used in the fibrinolytic system (prothrombin time, thrombin time, activated partial thrombin time, fibrinogen). When collecting blood, attention should be paid to collecting enough blood (2ml) to ensure the accuracy of the test results. After collecting blood, it should be immediately reversed and mixed for 8-10 times.

7. Black-cap tube (containing 0.109mol/L sodium citrate), the volume ratio of anticoagulant to blood is 1:4, generally used for erythrocyte sedimentation rate detection, when the ratio of anticoagulant is too high, the blood will be diluted, which can accelerate the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. When collecting blood, attention should be paid to collecting enough blood (2ml) to ensure the accuracy of the test results. After collecting blood, it should be immediately reversed and mixed for 8-10 times.

8. Gray-cap tube (containing potassium oxalate/sodium fluoride) : Sodium fluoride is a weak anticoagulant, has a good effect of preventing blood glucose degradation, is an excellent preservation agent for blood glucose detection, should pay attention to slowly reverse mixing when using. Generally used for blood glucose detection, can not be used for urea enzymatic determination of urea, alkaline phosphatase and amylase detection.

9. Light green-cap tube (containing heparin lithium anticoagulant and inert separation hose) : can achieve the purpose of rapid plasma separation, is the best choice for electrolyte detection.

II. The use of notes:

1. Appropriate blood collection tube should be selected according to different test requirements. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact the laboratory staff.

2. The sample number must be pasted on the blood tube, which is consistent with the number on the inspection list. It should be pasted on the paper label of vascular collection, not on the glass in case of falling off.

3. When taking blood, the patient should relax, the environment should be warm, and the venous contracture should be prevented. The time of applying tourniquet should not be too long (some scholars believe that the tourniquet should not be used as far as possible), and the success of blood collection should be observed.

4. The recommended blood collection sequence is anticoagulant-free tube (serum tube)→ separating gel/coagulant tube → heparin /EDTA tube → coagulation vessel → esR tube. The main reason is that the first tube often contains tissue fluid, easy to cause coagulation, not suitable for blood coagulation measurement; Furthermore, to avoid serum tube contamination by anticoagulant.

5. After the blood collection is completed, the blood samples are rolled up according to different test categories (biochemical, immune, routine, coagulation, erythrocyte sedimentation rate) with the test sheet, and sorted into different categories. It is not allowed to mix all the blood samples together to avoid confusion in operation.

6. The ratio of blood to anticoagulant must be accurate, and the amount of blood collected should meet the requirements.

7. After blood collection, gently reverse the tube and mix for 8-10 times, but do not shake violently. After blood collection, the sample should be placed vertically.





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